HEALTH AND STATUS OF WELL-BEING
Denoting the rural health communities is the generally poor health status of the people reflected in the morbidity and mortality rate as well as the prevalence of malnutrition among children and even adults. The poor health status is linked to various interrelated factors such as low per capita income, poor sanitation practices and other social condition. Belison although a 5th class municipality envisioned its populace to be always “healthy”. However, since its economy based largely on agriculture and big percentage of its population depends on farming, per capita income of every household is low rendering the family unable to meet the necessary food requirements; hence, poverty cannot be avoided. It could not be denied that poverty has become an emerging root of health problems in the locality.
Health Personnel and Facilities, Public and Private
Though Belison have competent health personnel in the LGU, it could not be denied that it still lack the manpower to deliver adequate health care services to its people. The municipality does not have a permanent Public Health Nurse to assist the Municipal Health Officer and a permanent driver for the ambulance due to excess PS cap. Being a fifth class municipality, Belison do not have enough funds to implement all the necessary health programs.
At present, there is one Municipal Health Office (MHO) servicing the entire municipality composed of the rural health center and three (3) barangays health stations. The Municipal Health Office is manned by a Municipal Health Officer, midwife and sanitary inspector. This center also serves as a lying-in to mothers giving birth who are not capable of paying hospital bills. It is provided of mattresses and beds. There are also two (2) ambulances stationed in the MHO. The three Barangay health stations are located in Concepcion, Rombang and Borocboroc each manned by a midwife who is permanently stationed there. Each Barangay has one Barangay Nutrition Scholar (BNS) who facilitated the Operation Timbang which is usually done every first quarter of the year to children 0-83 months old. Barangay Health Workers (BHW) is also there to assist basic medical services so that it is more available to a bigger segment of the population. In addition, seven (7) Nurses and four (4) Midwives were assigned in the MHO as extension program of the DOH through NDP-DOH and RHMPP to augment the health services to the community. Belison has a total of 4 registered private medical establishments such as dental clinic and pharmacies. These establishments are concentrated within the Poblacion.
Ten (10) Leading Causes of Morbidity (All Ages)
Morbidity comes from the word morbid, which means “or of relating to disease,” like the number of cases of any disease in an areas. Records from Municipal Health Office and Local Civil Registrar show that the top leading causes of morbidity for the last five years (2013-2017) in the municipality are Pneumonia, cardiopulmonary arrest and Cardio Respiratory Arrest. (Please refer to Table SO-19).
These causes of morbidity were attributed much in the lifestyle of the populace and the health impacts of climate change. The poor eating habits, lack of awareness on the ailment, proper disposal of waste and environmental sanitation, poverty, negligence and lack of compliance for the prescription on the treatment. What is needed then is continuing education for basic health and hygiene, proper nutrition, healthy lifestyle and other related topics in climate change and hazards management.
Ten (10) Leading Causes of Mortality (All Ages)
Mortality can refer to an individual or to a larger group of people, particularly when talking about the total number of deaths within a population, using the phrase mortality rate. The words mortality and mortal come from the Latin root mortis, or “death. As per record from the MHO and MCR, the top ten causes of deaths in the LGU for the past five years are quite the same with the top ten causes of morbidity. Pneumonia, Cerebro Vascular Accident and Pulmonary Tuberculosis placed in the top three. The same with morbidity, these causes of mortality can be attributed much in the lifestyle of the populace added with the health impacts of climate change. Human health has always been influenced by climate and weather. Changes in climate and climate variability, particularly changes in weather extremes, affect the environment that provides us with clean air, food, water, shelter, and security. Climate change, together with other natural and human-made health stressors, threatens human health and well-being in numerous ways. Some of these health impacts are already being experienced in the municipality which considered as one of the ten leading causes of mortality.
Adequate nutrition is a key factor to live an active and healthy life. In spite of its importanceas a determinant of health and development, malnutrition is still a neglected area and too littlehas been done to address its causes and serious social and economic implications. Although, the municipality has a growing interest in nutrition, stronger political involvement and significant financial pledges and policy commitments is still insufficient to arrest the problem.
The immediate causes of malnutrition are due to inadequate food intake (in terms of quantity or quality) and diseases. However, malnutrition is influenced by a host of underlying factors related to poverty, including food insecurity, poor water, sanitation and health services, which find their roots in factors that can vary from conflict to climate change; from scarce natural resources to high and volatile food prices; from poor governance to demographic growth.
Results of the CBMS Survey undertaken last 2017 showed that malnutrition among children 0-5 years old still exist in the municipality. (See Table 11 and map for reference). The barangay of Borocboroc has the highest prevalence of malnutrition. A worrying trend show that the municipality suffer from the double burden of malnutrition in which undernutrition and obesity are found within the same community or even the same household. Various programs such as supplemental feeding, nutrition education, mother’s class, giving of micronutrient and day care service have been undertaken by different government agencies such as Municipal Social Welfare and Development (MSWDO), DepED and Municipal Health Office to curb the rate of malnutrition. However, it seems that the efforts are in vain. Therefore, effective interventions to combat undernutrition are need to be scaled up and integrated in both development and policies of the municipality if they are to have a significant impact in the nutritional status of individuals and communities.
Other Health Statistical Data
- Fertility Indices
- Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
Crude Birth Rate is defined as the ratio between number of livebirths and number of individuals in a specified population and period of time often expressed as number of livebirths per one (1) thousand populations in a given year. As commuted per data given by the Municipal Health Office and Local Civil Registrar, the Crude Birth Rate of Belison for the past five years starting 2013 to 2017 is decreasing. From 2013 it recorded 6 livebirths per 1,000 populations. Nevertheless, the latest CBR of the municipality (2017) is 3 which decrease 50% of the 2013 CBR. (Please refer to Table SO-17)
- Total Fertility Rate
This is defined as the number of born individuals per one (1) thousand female populations in child-bearing ages 15-44 years. Since no record of the number of child bearing female population ages 15-44 years for 2013, the 2010 population distribution by age and sex data were taken to project it and in order to compute the Total Fertility Rate for 2013-2017. Using the available data, the current Total Fertility Rate of Belison is 8 livebirths for every 1,000 female population of child bearing age. As reflected in Table SO-17, total fertility rate of the municipality was also increasing for the past five years.
2. Morbidity Indicators
General medical consultation rates and hospitalization rates are employed to reflect, the morbidity situation of a certain municipality. There is no hospital in the area, but there is one functional rural health center. As per record of the Municipal Health Office, the number of general medical consultation in the past five years was increasing. From 40% rate in 2013 it reaches to 62% in 2017. This shows that health problems in the municipality is increasing pressing the health sector to increase its efficiency in delivering basic services to the people.
3. Mortality Indicators
Mortality indicators include the CDR and the proportional mortality ratio of age fifty (50) years and over, current mortality, young child mortality and maternal mortality.
- Swarrop-Uemura Index or Proportional Mortality Ratio (PMR)
This is death in age fifty (50) years and over in a calendar year per 1,000 deaths, all causes, all ages in the same year. According to the record of Municipal Health Office and Local Civil Registrar, out of the total deaths all causes in all ages, in the past five years, 75% and more belongs to the age bracket fifty years and over.
- Crude Death Rate
Crude Death Rate is the number of deaths per 1,000 mid-year population of the municipality. Based on the collected data, the Crude Death Rate of Belison for the past five years was fluctuating. While it is increasing in the four years, it goes back to 5 in 2016. In the middle of this time frame, a high record was obtained with a number of 7 deaths per 1,000 populations. It can be noted that number of births and deaths are almost equal within these years. If this case continue to happen, although almost half of female population was in the childbearing or reproductive ages increase in the population will be slow.
- Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
As defined, this is the number of deaths to infants under one year of age per 1,000 livebirths in a given year or it is a risk of a child dying before reaching his first birthday or during infancy. Data collected that for the last five years, no cases of death in age below one year old. Hence, the IMR of the municipality for the last five years was 0. As per record from the previous CLUP, the IMR of the municipality is high, however due to the upgrading of medical care facilities and constant information drive of the health personnel to child-bearing mothers, this performance was attained.
- Young Child Mortality (YCM)
Young child mortality of the municipality for the last five years is also one (1) based on the data taken from the CBMS. This takes place in barangay Mojon.
- Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR)
Maternal mortality rate is the number of women who die as a result of child bearing in a given year per 1,000 births in the same year. Record shows that there was no maternal death case happens for the last five years.
The general health condition of the municipality of Belison is much better compare to other 5th class municipality. Although many of the constituents still live within the poverty line, yet when they encountered health problems, they easily see a health worker to undergo immediate treatment due to availability of health facilities within their area.